Assesment of C.P.I.Maoist-India
a.Defective agrarian revolutionary and military line
The most arguable and debatable issue is whether the armed squad actions of the C.P.I.(Maoist) are enhancing the broad revolutionary movement, particularly in Bihar,Andhra Pradesh and Dandkaranya.To me in the anti-landlord struggle still they very often implement the line of “Individual annihilation of the class enemy. However what is noteworthy is that the armed struggle led by them is still at the stage of building guerilla Zones and has not established revolutionary base areas like what the Chinese Communist Party had built in the 1936 period in China. True they have heroically defended their territories but have not been able to consolidate their gueriila Zones into base areas nor are they in the processs of doing so.They are unable to replenish their lost forces sufficiently and their self –defence in their areas.remains more on their guerilla squads than the broad masses.The most debatable aspect is whether actual conditions exist to launch armed struggle in India today particularly in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar.To some extent the mass line was implemented by mass fronts like the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti, Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Revolutionary Students League(Bihar) and the Rytu Coolie Sangham and the Radical students Union(Andhra Pradesh
The Srikakulam Girijan Sangham was formed in 1958 under the leadership of the Communist Party.The Girijans are an opressed tribal community in Andhra Pradesh and under the leadership of the Communist Party of India formed their democratic mass organisation. In the late 60`s as a result of Charu Mazumdar`s left deviationist line the organisation was virtually disbanded.There was a major mass peasant revolutionary Struggle in Srikakulam which remains in the history books of the Communist movement.However though the People`s War Group rectified the Charu Mazumdar line to some extent by forming mass organisations like the Rytu Coolie Sangham and the Radical Students Union, they continued with their line of" annihilation of class enemies."In the early 80`s the Srikakulam Girijan Sangham was re-organised and very often when mass agitations were launched the People`s War Group remained aloof.(Unintentionally) One example was the agitation for opposing the scrapping on Land Regulation Act Regulation1 of 19 70 which ensured land rights for the Girijans who had been discriminated by other classes of peasants.The non-tribal peasants continuously seized their lands and forced the Girijans to become coolies or bonded labourers.In fact in 1992 The People`s War Group carried out an action against a class enemy which the Srikakulam Girijan Sangham judged to be against the interests of the Revolutionary movement. A handbill was distributed that such actions were like killing the Mosquito but not dealing with the breeding pit.
Several Group Clashes occurred between the People`s War Group and other groups like the Ramchandran Group.New Democracy Group etc where the masses were reduced to helpless spectators.Armed Squads combated members from other groups struggling to maintain their bases!This was an incorrect approach to the question of mass line and politicalStruggle.One Group always feared the entry of another group in their area of work.Thus the Communist Revolutionary Groups behaved antagonistically with one another.In fact the State benefited from this .This started from the 1098’s but was very prominent in the early 1990’s.The Peoples War Group mantained that cadres from other groups were killed on entirely tactical grounds and they were not clashes in hir statements and documents.
Below I am quoting 2 articles.One from revolutionary Journal’The Comrade’, the other from an article bu Chakrapani in Frontier.
’At the conclusion of the decade of the 1990’s 3 important leaders of the People’s war Group were slain in a police encounter. A massive anti-repression programme took place in Andhra Pradesh in December 1999.Such Comrades were truly the best sons of the land heroically laying down their lives for liberation.Various communist Revolutionary Groups belonging to various groups participated.The People`s War Group launched retaliatory Actions to give a severe blow to the Indian State.After the armed Actions the People`s War Group made a self-critical assesment stating"Even when there were ample opportunities to educate and involve the People,our cadres only resorted to protest actions.These are incorrect actions.Because of non-participation of people in such actions,the outcome of such actions, is contrary to the impact we wanted"Thus this group was not aware that such armed actions of Party Guerilla Squads,by themselves cannot succeed in their basis and ultimate objective of defeating the reactionary State.Infact the people have to own such actions and voluntarily participate in them with revolutionary political Consciousness and confidence in their own organised strength.Even in the post encounter Joint Protests the leading rank of the People`s War Group remained pre-occupiedwith either the representative team protests or armed retaliatory actions.-thus their organized attempts for militant mass attempts for militant mass political mobilisations remained Sparse.One cannot deny the People`s War Group for their bravery and tenacity in standing upto the tyranny of the Stae and retaliating against it but without a correct approach towards mass armed Struggle the Revolutionary movement will not build up properly.’(From the Comrade)
Why are the vast masses of people in the areas under the influence or control of Peoples war remain laregely as spectators or silent sympathizers? Why they find themselves helpless when confronted with the heavy arm of the state?Thousands of acres of land remain fallow for years even in areas where the land was said to have been re-distributed and the landlords were chased from the villages.Why?
Many action s by the armed formation sof the Peoples war where they sought to dictate terms on the strength of weapon are dubious-assasinated individuals indiscriminately,mined the fields,blew up buildings and installations Etcthe way they carried out the election boycott line and verdicts of the Peoples Courts and the way they sought to assert and establish the revolutionary Supremacy over other organizations invited wide criticism,condemnation and even protest among the people,democratic and Progressive Circles.The Peoples war leadership ,belatedly expressed it’s regret at some of them,but continued in some form ,or the other,the same practice even later.The Peoples War leadership without taking account of the level and nature of the movement with regards to the state of class Struggle and agrarian revolutionary Movement in their areas of Struggle.Their military formations and operations are not in relation to the level of class struggle and Agrarian Revolutionary Movement.Their types of activities and actions that their formations carry out do not take into account the people’s Consciousness and preparedness,organization and participation in the struggle to a higher level .Some of their armed actions dampen and even negate the People’s mass struggles. In reality the Peoples war Group although the Strongest revolutionary force in the Country suffers from sectarianism,militarism and anarchism. It has a big brother approach to other revolutionary organizations. Only when in dire need do they form united Fronts with other revolutionary Groups, resorting to mass mobilizations on general issues. Their indiscriminate armed actions, assassination of Individuals and destruction of properties by thev armed bands may pose some trouble and loss, but they cannot pose a grave danger to the system as such.The Peoples war leadership claim to have vast areas under the leadership of their guerrilla Zones or areas of Influence.Theya lso declare that they have formed their own Peoples Guerilla Army.Howevever although they have a semblance to Mao’s line in reality they still have not developed the correct practice pf Maoist Protracted Peoples Military Warfare.(From Frontier article by Chakrapani in February2002)
Those articles depict that The party has carried out several armed actions. However they have not all received mass support and often substituted the people’s role Although the C.P.I.Maoist cadre in Bihar and Andhra have made heroic sacrifices their armed actions although with most sincere intentions do not build up a protracted People’s War as propounded by Comrade Mao. There are powerful tendencies of individual heroism .To carry out armed Struggle the Party of the proletariat has to establish it’s leadership over the revolutionary movement as well as having set up organs of parallel political power. Today the level of political consciousness and preparedness is inadequate in Bihar.The people are not sufficiently educated in the politics of seizure of power. Although it is a principal task to set up liberated areas the present co-relation of forces is inadequate to set them up.People have to be trained to organise their own self-defence.Without the above mentioned conditions Armed actions would substitute the role the people need to play.Still, the author of this article has he greatest respect for some of he military actions carried out in Bihar. In recent times in retaliation against the police. True the armed squads have erred when it ahs come to implementing the mass line in the anti-landlord struggles and their have been indiscriminate actions ..They propogate active boycott of parliamentary elections. The boycott slogan is meaningless until the people have set up alternative organs of people’s revolutionary power.Without the scope of direct revolutionary mass action and setting up of parralel organs of people’s revolutionary power is thus an irresponsible left sectarian orientation.In today’s situation the only suitable tactic is to launch an active political campaign and help people build alternative organs of revolutionary power.(Participation of elections today would lead to capitulationism as the proletarian party lacks sufficient mass political influence. Although one cannot deny the sincerity of the armed squads,the armed actions have to be based on the strength of the people’s movements as advocated by Mao.Armed stuggle is totally necessary to fight the revisionist line but has to be carried out at the appropriate time.Only when alternate organ’s of people’s power have been founded can the tactic of ‘active boycott of parliamentary elections’ be used effectively.Political education of the people has to take place.The C.P.I(Maoist) has built up powerful peasant movements in Andhra and Dandkarnaya .They have to be give n credit for this. However the left adventurism trends have to be fought against to develop the revolutionary movement.The experience of the Chinese Communist party in re-organising after the Chingkanshan movement and starting armed Struggle has to be studied in this regard.Mao`s struggle against the left deviationist LI-Li San line and the rightist Chang Kuo-Ta line was significant .Ultimately Mao`s mass line was supported in the 1935 Tsunyi conference.All the armed actions of the Red Army were based on the people.The success of the Long March testified this Their boycott call is often meaningless as in certain areas of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar they have supported candidates of opportunist parties like the Bahujan Samaj.To defeat Enemy forces they have sometimes called for supporting opposition candidates which shows the inconsistency of properly implementing the tactic of Active boycott of parliamentary Elections.We must study the experience oh how Comrade Mao led the Chinese Communist Party on forming liberated areas.The Chingkanshan Experience has to be studied as well as the methods adopted in the strategic defensive military era ,strategic equilibrium and the Strategic offensive.The Red Army was founded on the basis of a mass agrarian revolutionary peasant movement and it’s formation was based on the people’s movements .It was the equivalent of making a solid foundation and building a pyramid or the relationship of a wheel with an axle.Today the organization claims to have developed guerilla Zones and base areas. . True the C.P.I.Maoist has mass support in major areas in Bihar, Andhra and Dandakaranya , has base areas in some respects similar to those of the Chinese Revolutionary period during their armed struggle and have carried out magnificient retaliatory actions in self defence against enemies-the only revolutionary Organization to have seriously attempted protracted Peoples Warfare in recent times.e(reminding one of armed action sin Nepal,Peru and Phillipines) In actual fact in Andhra Pradesh,Dandkaranya and Bihar there are pockets of revolutionary resistance dictated by armed..In none of their base areas have they distributed even half the amount of land distributed in the Telengana Armed struggle or anywhere near what the Chinese Red Army did in the Agrarian revolutionary war.Their Armed squads, even if they partially integrate with mass movements often are used to give shelter to mass organizations and replace peoples independent actions. The armed actions on police stations, whatever the sincerity of the squad members often replace the mass movements, rather than supplement them.They are losing more and more cadre day by day and are unable to consistently replace the fighting forces lost. It is also significant that as a consequence of their squad actions it is not only the cadre of the organization that is attacked by the State but also ordinary sympathizers and civilians.In West Bengal, retaliatory actions took place just 2 months ago in retaliation of tortire and killing of mass sympathizers and cadres,l ike the blowing up of a police jeep. However such actions have no relationship with the actual mass peoples Movement and the it cost the lives of innocent people.In revolutionary struggle ethics is an important question and revolutionary violence does not justify the killing of innocent people.Were not the policemen beloging to the middle peasant class and were they criminals? An Innocent mid-day meal cook was beaten to death by a police informer in Karimnagar. What oif she was actually innocent .Her family members were beaten up when thy offered resistance!The C.P.I.(Maoist)have eliminated may people suspected of being police informers who could have been innocent on grounds of their safety.In the authors view this is violation of revolutionary ethics.
Mass Organisations like the Andhra Pradesh Radical Students Union or the Rythu Coolie Sangham can hardly carry out open activities or agitations, nor can the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami Parishad in Bihar. It must be noted that nowhere in Andhra Pradesh,Dandkaranya or Bihar has any struggle been developed even half as strong as the Telengana One. Quoting the eminent intellectual and critique of Naxalite Movement Sumanta Banerjee (wrote famous book ‘In the wake of Naxalabari’ and isolate them
‘It should be pointed out however that despite their survival for almost four decades, the Naxalites do not yet control any large area comparable to the `liberated zone' that the Chinese Communists could establish in Yenan within a decade or so in the 1930-40 period, or the sizable tract that the Maoists occupy in neighbouring Nepal today. They have not been able to reach out to the masses of the peasantry in the vast countryside of other parts of India, and have expanded only to a few isolated pockets and stretches of areas inhabited mainly by tribal and landless poor. Closeted in their rural underground shelters, the Naxalite leaders have ignored the task of setting up bases among the large number of workers both in the organized industrial and the unorganized sectors. They have also failed to build up a regular army like the Chinese People's Liberation Army, or the Vietnamese military organization – that helped both the Chinese and the Vietnamese to effectively fight their enemies.
These shortcomings have both crippled and distorted the character of the Naxalite movement. The failure to establish a `liberated zone' has frustrated their original strategy of setting up an alternative order to bring about agrarian and social reforms. Instead, all their energies are now devoted to defensive actions to preserve their pockets of influence, and offensive assaults which are degenerating into acts of terrorism against soft targets like village headmen or junior government employees.’ Quoting a 1999 C.P.I.M.L(Peoples War pamphlet)
In the author’s view the military line cannot be called a practice of Che Gueveraist Foco line or Guevarism,sice it seriously attempts Mao’s theory of Peoples War.However in many aspects of practice their military line diverts from Mao’s concepts.
The C.P.I(M.L)P.W.in May 1985 gave a call for a war of self defence.to counter the enemy’s offensive. By consistent efforts,by 1988,the initiative was regained. Witnessing this large mobilsation the govt.stepped up repression on alarger sale than 1991.
Anway,witnessing this large scale mobilization, the government stepped up repression by 1991,on a larger scale than 1985.In the last 3 to 4 years ,to varying degrees these tasks have been initiated and the consolidation of the guerilla Zone is in process in Northern Telengana and Dandkaranya,while in the 3 regions of the East Zone,Souh Telenganaand Nallamala forest region hich are at the preparatorystage of the guerilla Zone ,too,this process is going on.Also while the mass struggles have continued inspite of repressuion ,the military capabilities have vastly improved.
Hitorically there is a difference between revolutionary base areas and gueriall zones.Quoting Mao’s writings on military line, “When guerilla Warfare began,the guerillas could not completely occupy the places ,but could only make frequent raids,,they are areas which are held by the guerilla forces when they are presnt and the by the puppet regime when they are gone.Thus they are not guerilla basesbut zones.Thse zones can be converted into bases by consolidating guerilla warfare and after large portions of enemy troops have been annihilated,and the puppet regime destroyed..The mass organsiations alos formed as well as peoles local armed forces.The extent to which the enemy is destroyed is the vital factor.
“The fundamental conditions for establishing a base aea are that there should be any –enemy armed and thes armed forces should be deployed to inflict defeats on the enemy and arouse the peoleinto action.The esatablishment of a bsae area is first and foremost as a matter of building an armed force.
The second condition is that the armed forces hould be used in co-ordination with the peole to defeat the enemy.All places under enemy controla rea enemy,and not guerilla,base areas unless the enemy is defeated.Unless enemy attacks are repulsed,even places held under gueriall control will come under the hands of the enemy.
Thirdly, we must organize an army and mass organizations and mobilize as many democratic forces against the common enemy. The people have to be aroused to consolidate the local organs of power. The original organs of power must be re-organized and consolidated with the support of the brad masses, and where they have been destroyed must be rebuilt.
Geographical and Economic conditions must be studied. A necessary perquisite is that an area must be extensive.
Base areas have to be consolidated.Guerilla warfare must be from their base area as widely as possible ,thwarting all enemy strongholds thus threatening the existence of the enemy.
However the local masses must be organized, guerilla units trained and local armed forces developed. Expansion must be merged with consolidation, depending on the situation.
Mao advocated the theory of the Strategic Defensive and the strategic offensive. “Within the nation-wide strategic defensive or offensive, small scale strategic offensives or defensives take place in an around every base area. Strategic defensive means the strategic policy when the enemy is on the offensive, while strategic offensive, means our strategic policy when the enemy is on the defensive and we are on the offensive”
“In The strategic defensive to wipe out the guerillas and their base areas, the enemy often launches converging attacks. The larger the scale of fighting) In the student and youth section although there is a revolutionary movement led by the groups(‘Go to Village Campaigns’, ‘go to factories and Slum Campaigns’)there is still a lot of glorification is given to armed squad heroes and mass agrarian revolutionary politics is not upheld. Peasant organization were formed by both groups but there was still lack of cohesive revolutionary resistance to combat the onslaught of the C.PI.M.revisionist Forces, the more important the position of the base areas, and the greater threat to the enemy’s strategic centers and vital communication lines, the fiercer will be the enemy’s attacks.Therefore,the fiercer the enemy’s attacks on a guerilla area, the greater the indication that the guerilla warfare is successful and is being effectively coordinated..
“In the Strategic Offensive, we do not attack enemy forces entrenched in defensive positions, and we are not sure of defeating, but systematically to destroy or drive out the small enemy units, which our guerilla forces are strong enough to tackle. Weakly garrisssoned cities can be attacked as well as communication lines which can help expand our areas. The purpose is to take advantage of the enemy which is on the defensive and build up our own military and mass, to reduce the might of the enemy and smash it with another offensive. strength.’
“In this period the guerilla Zones and units are in high spirits, and the areas destroyed by the enemy are revived. The people in the enemy areas also have a very high morale. The morale is in contrast down in the enemy camp.
The C.P.I. (Maoist). in implementation of line often confused the difference between forming a guerilla zone and a base area. Today the trend is similar. In their zones they retaliate and defend their areas through their guerilla squad actions and are not able to replenish their losses. They do not have sufficient support of the broad masses. There is insufficient development of mass agrarian revolutionary struggle and revolutionary democratic Peoples Mass Organizations.
We must remember the method of functioning of the Chinese Red Army in the period of pre- armed struggle and armed struggle phase. It is relevant to compare the armed struggle of the C.P.I. (Maoist) with the armed struggle of the Chinese Red Army. And asses the similarities and differences. With Here are some compiled notes from ‘Red Star over China’ and “Edgar Snow’s China.”
“By spring peasant struggles began to erupt in Hupeh, KInagsi, Fukien and Hunan, with a militant tendency. In 1927 the Autumn Harvest uprising was organized which propagated a programme.Before 1927 Mao had written a thesis on the peasant movement through his ‘Report and Investigation of the Peasant movement in Hunan’14 great deeds were mentioned .The greatest one was that the poor peasants were organized against the enemies. In addition to that political prestige of landlords was smashed, landlords compelled to audit accounts, grain hoarding opposed, police chiefs offices taken over and magistrates elected, most brutal oppressors paraded through the streets, usury stopped, landlords militia conquered banditry eliminated, oppressive landlords fined, male tyranny over woman fought against, mass education amongst illiterates promoted, superstitious customs fought against, marketing and credit co-operatives organized, and roads and irrigation projects built financed by landlords.
Attempts at armed risings in Canton and Nanchang were ruthlessly suppressed. Collecting fragments of the peasant associations Mao launched the first rural armed insurrection, called the Autumn Harvest Uprising. Implementing complete separation from the Kuomintang, organisation of a peasant worker revolutionary army, confiscation of the property of small and middle, as well as great landlords, setting up the power of the Communist Party of Hunan and organization of the Soviets By September a widespread uprising was organized, through the peasant uprisings of Hunan, and the first units of the worker-peasant army were formed. Recruits were drawn from the peasantry, the Hanyang miners and the insurrectionist troops of the Kuomintang. This was called the ‘First division of the Workers and peasants army.’ It is significant that the miners were included as it illustrates the importance of the work I the Working class area. By 1922 the Hunan party had already organized more than twenty trade Unions among miners, railway workers, municipal employees, renters and workers in the govt.mint. Numerous struggles were organized with youth and students.”
“‘In the 6th Congress of the Party resolutions wee made approving of the emphasis on the agrarian movement. Work as expanded to new Soviet district A democratic programme was propagated in the Soviet of Chingkanshan in November 1927.Mao’s first army front committee refused to adopt the putschist tactics of raiding, burning and killing the landlords. In May 1928 Chu The’s forces combined with Mao’s and a plan was drawn to build a six hsien soviet area to consolidate the Communist power in the Hunan,Kiangsi,Kwantung border districts.2 tendencies were combated.0ne to advance to the capital of Changshah,the other to retreat to the South of the Wanton border. It was advocated that land had to be divided, masses armed Etc.Kuomintang officials wee killed and Soviet governments established areas which included a population of fifty-70 millions of peasants were bolshevized. A mass effort to establish political, economic and social reforms was launched.Landlords, usurers and local militarists were liquidated Debts were canceled, deeds torn up, and land distributed amongst peasants and soldiers.
Fascinatingly, originally the Red Army was armed with traditional arms like pitchforks and spears. (Similar to Naxalbari Movement in India).”
“The 4th army went on to carry successful campaigns after the 4th Red army was formed in Chingkanshan.A soviet was established in Tongue where unity was built with local red troops. The existence of militant mass movements prior to the arrival of the Red Army assured their successs, and helped to consolidate Soviet power. The influence of the Red Army now extended, through the agrarian mass movements and partisans. A conference was held in Lucien in December 1929, which developed the plans for the future of the Red Army. It paved the way for the creation of soviet in Kiangsi.Question of land policy was argued at length, an s well as the struggle against opportunism. The Kiangsi provisional Soviet govt was formed which was enthusiastically received by the peasants.”
In the later period it is worth recounting how the Chinese Red Army was victorious in the 5th campaign against Chiang Kai Shek.The Red Army retreated from Kiangsi so swiftly and secretly that the main forces of red troops, estimated at about 90,000 men, had already been marching for several days before the enemy headquarters was aware of what was happening. Partisans replaced the regular troops in Southern Kiangsi when practically the whole red army was constituted near Yutu, in Southern Kiangsi the order was given for the Great Long March. Besides the army, thousands of red peasants, children, and women including non –communist elements joined the march....’
“By 1935 It is worth recounting the achievements of the Red Army formed ‘Soviet Society’. Land was confiscated from the officials big landlords, tax collectors Etc and the immediate demands of the poor peasantry was satisfied. he Reds not only created the economic base for support amongst the poor and landless peasantry by giving them farms but in some cases won the gratitude of the middle peasants, by abolishing tax exploitation. I n some cases small landlords was won over to their side in the anti-Japanese movement. Both the landlord and rich peasant was allowed as much land as they could as long as they cultivated it with their own labour.In districts where there was no land scarcity, the lands of resident landlords and rich peasants was not confiscated, but the wasteland and land of absentee owners was distributed Poor farmers were given loans at very low rates of interest, Usury was abolished and several thousand agricultural implements made in the Red Arsenals. Thousands of pounds of grain were supplied to landless peasants breaking wasteland. A primitive agricultural school was built, too. Co-operative farming was introduced Corruption was stopped, opium was eliminated that had been so predominant earlier, beggary and unemployment eliminated, foot binding abolished, child slavery abolished, prostitution banned, introduced divorce laws I, education made free and universal Etc.”
“The fact that the Reds had their base in the mass of the population was reflected in the fact that in all the older Soviet Districts the policing and guarding was done by the peasant organizations alone. There were few red Army garrisons in the Soviet Districts all the fighting strength of the army being kept I the Front. Local defense was carried out by the village defense corps, peasant guards and partisans The Intensive organization of the peasantry created a rear guard and base which freed the Red Army to operate with extreme mobility for which it was noted... Wherever the Reds went they radically changed the situation of the tenant farmer, the poor farmer he middle farmer and all the have not elements .All forms of taxation were abolished in the new districts only a progressive single tax on land was collected .The Reds gave land to the land hungry peasants and also seized the land and livestock from the wealthy classes and re-distributed it to the poor.”
“A structure was established within the Soviets. Each village elected its delegates to the higher Soviets clear up to the delegates elected for the Soviet Congress. Various committees were established under each of the district Soviets. An all powerful Committee, usually elected in a mass meeting shortly after the occupation of a district by the Red Army, and preceded by an intensified propaganda campaign, was the revolutionary Committee. It called for elections and re-elections, and closely cooperated with the Communist Party.Commitees were formed in every branch organ of the Soviets, right up to the Central Government. The Communist Party had an extensive membership amongst farmers and workers and not only in the government. There was also an organization of Young Communist-The young vanguards and the Children’s brigades. Mass Organizations like Communist Youth Leagues, Etc were organized. Peasant guards were also incorporated into such an organized structure. The mass base of the soviet Movement was built upon the organization of workers and peasants Unions, with the principal role in the hands of the peasantry.’
“The Chinese Communists never regarded land distribution as anything more than a phase in building a mass base. They ultimately aimed to establish a Socialist State In Fundamental Laws of the Chinese Soviet Republic; The first All-China-Soviet Congress in 1931 had written an established programme showing this. However the social, political and economic organization of the Red districts had always been a provisional affair and still the main task was to build a military and political base for the extension of revolution on a wider and deeper scale, rather than try out Communism in China.”
Collective production brigades were established Activities were carried out beyond production and distribution. Great areas could be quickly planted and harvested collectively. In ‘Saturday Brigades’ not only children’s organizations but every Soviet official, Red Partisan, Red Guard, omens organization members, and any Red Army detachment participated. An economic, cultural and political Unity was incorporated through this process.
The mass line of the Red army is depicted by a red Devil. (members of the children’s or youth corpse)
‘Are there any landlords left here?
The Young comrade Hsiao Key replied, ’No, no landlords. They have all run away and been killed by our Red Army’
This answer reflected how the masses felt that the Red Army was their own army.
During the Long March, often the peasantry sent groups to urge the reds to detour and liberate their districts. The broad masses only understood it was a poor man’s army and hardly understood the Red Army’s political programme.The Red Army had destroyed land deeds, abolished taxes and armed the poor peasantry.”
We must also throw light on the intra party struggle. Mao won a 2line struggle against Li San who opposed the rural soviets and urged that strong aggressive tactics were launched in Changshah, Wuhan and Nanchang.In Li’s view only a mighty offensive by the workers would paralyze the enemy and he propagated uprisings in the Cities, following the Soviet led Urban insurrectionist line. Mao fought for the theory that the peasantry was the principal force and the revolution was principally rural. Later Wang Ming also opposed Mao supporting the urban based line .Only during the Long March in January 1935 was Mao’s line established to be principally correct and he was elected chairman of the Communist Party in Tsunyi. Here the right capitulationist line of Chan Kuo Ta and the adventurist line of Wang Ming was defeated.
b...Defective approach towards trade Unions
On the trade Union Front the Peoples War Group has not been able to form democratically functioning trade Unions and often has ended up giving political slogans of revolutionary Armed Struggle not compatible with the political capacity of broad sections of the Working Class.The Working class was not fully explained the link between their interests and the agrarian revolutionary movement but slogans glorifying heroes of Armed squads are raised by the Peoples War Group. There is also lack of revolutionary mass work in the major cities relating the trade Union work to the Agrarian revolutionary Struggle. Left sectarian slogans are taken within their trade Unions which the workers find difficult to relate with their day to day lives. The relationship of the movements in the towns with the major cities is like a bark of a tree with its branches. True in there are Unions like the Signaler coal mine Union in Andhra Pradesh as well as Unions in West Bengal. In major states of Struggle open mass work is virtually impossible and thus there is an ineffective role of revolutionary mass organizations
c.incorrect approach to Mass Organizations
True since the 1980’s members of squads of the Peoples War Group made heroic sacrifices literally dipping their blood. A huge peasant movement was led in Andhra Pradesh and at al All India level on the initiative of the organization fronts like the All India Revolutionary Students Federation and the All India league for revolutionary culture (With collaboration of M.C.C and Party Unity Forces) were formed The author remembers the 19980 Rytu Coolie Sang ham Conference in Warangal in Andhra Pradesh where a rally of 4 lakh peasants took place as though a tornado had emerged. However in such fronts Mao Tse Tung thought was imposed as the guiding ideology and a necessary part of the manifesto which acts against the democratic nature of a mass organization. The author remembers going to the 1989 A.I R.S F Conference.(In 1985 the first All ndia Revolutionary Student federation was formed comprising of organizations from Andhra Pradesh, set Bengal, Punjab Etc.Trrue there were 10,000 delegates, a remarkable achievement but how may mass student participants in the country can be mobilized under the banner of Mao Tse Tung Thought? In the ‘Charu era’ it was advocated that mass organizations should be abandoned. The P.W.G later made a rectification in the late 70’s and decided to form mass organizations. There are strong tendencies of forming mass organizations as front organisations.Mass organizations must be given their separate identity. Only when the major section of a mass organization accepts the politics of the revolutionary party can mass organizations function as front organisations.Although such sections have formed mass organizations there are still tendencies of confusing the mass organizations with the Party. Although on the practical plane they lead a powerful mass democratic movement there is still not enough democratization as needed in a mass movement within a mass organisation.Mass organizations ,particularly the peasant front need continuous regularization of committees and activists working within them have to be encouraged in running the mass organizations. Masses must be trained to take part in political decisions and organize programmes on their own initiative.Infact running mass organizations as front organisations is a form of imposing one’s politics on the people.In Bihar today although there is a healthy trend of revolutionary forces coming together there is lack of a democratic cohesive front organising the people against the two-pronged terror of landlord and State terrorism.Such a front is needed where revolutionary groups do not propogate revolutionary polemics but enhance people to organise their own self defence.Even during the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition Communist revolutionaries of Bihar, however sincerely they protested were unable to set up a mass anti-communal front against communalism and thought it was adequate to fight from the platform of sectional revolutionary organisations. revolutionary democratic platform during the Shankhar bigha and Laxmanpur Bathe massacres.In the major struggle areas of Bihar like Jehanabad and Palamau as well as Aurangabad and Gaya open mass activity is impossible.After an Interview with the Democratic Students Union president Amitabh the author learnt that only in Bhagalpur,Chaibasai and Darsingh Serai Regions was open work possible in the student and youth front.Today organizations like the Democratic Students Union,Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad can hardly function openly in both Bihar and Jharkhand.(Only perhaps in Bhagalpur In November 2004 a go a call was given for a rally in Patna by the Organisation.However the rally could not take place...In West Bengal mass front’s of the peasants students youth and cultural section fought together for democratic struggles.In the trade Union Front left sectarian understanding prevented the groups from working towards a broad based trade Union movement.However there was a strong tendency to form mass organisations as front organisations and thus impose the party’s views on the mass organisations.In a revolutionary movement the party must function democratically within mass organisations.The political line of the mass organization and party must not be confused.Only at certain stages of a revolutionary movement can mass organisations function as front organisations. This is when mass sections within the mass organisation accept the party’s politics.There were tendencies to impose Mao-Tse-Tung thought in the manifesto of mass organisations.Mass organisations were used as party platforms. Mao always stressed on separating the role of the mass organisations with the Party .He always stressed that The Chinese Communist Party had to be differentiated from the Youth league and the Peasants Associations. The Chinese Red Army placed particular emphasis on democratically working within mass organisations and not imposing politics. In Punjab there is strong left sectarian Understanding in the functioning of the C.P.I.Maoist in the Bharatiya Kisan Union(Landed Farmers Union).The Union was a general democratic fighting organization of the middle and landed peasantry and thus it could not be converted into a revolutionary Peasant Assocciation to become a front organization of the revolutionary Party.The Union could only be a launching pad or a base to create such an organization.There were strong tendencies of revolutionary groups like C.P.I.Maoist(At that time Peoples War and Earlier Party Unity) working within the Bharatiya Kisan Union Ekta of imposing the Party Politics on the mass Organisations.They Introduced Maoist politics not compatible with the Consciousness of the masses.True the Proletarian Politics has to be introduced within a mass organization without which a proletarian revolutionary movement cannot be created but only when the masses have been imbibed with the necessary Political Consciousness.In this light in 1998 the revolutionary Group violated the revolutionary Norms by giving a call to the Punjab peasants to participate in an anti-W.T.O.rally in Delhi.The correct trend within the B.K.U emphasized the need for a revolutionary Democratic movement but made continuous efforts to only raise slogans in accordance to the Consciousness of the members of the Union..The need for instilling the correct revolutionary level of Consciousnesss before introducing the higher level revolutionary Party Politics is the Equivalent of giving Anesthesia to a patient before a heart
True major rallies have been led containing sympathizers but this is not necessarily mean that the mass line is being carried out.In the 1997 Rally commemorating the 30th Anniversary of the Naxalbari Armed Struggle there was a mobilization of over 10 lakhs but the methods of mobilization resorted to were not consistent in relation to the consciousness of the broad masses.The content of mass agrarian revolutionary line ,building of revolutionary mass organizations and democratic Organisations of peoples power was ineffectively explained.Today the C.P.I Maoist is having negotiations with the Andhra Pradesh Government.Is this the same situation confronted by Comrade Mao in 1937 when he united with Chiang Kai Shek’s Kuomintang forces?This is evidence of the fact that left adventurist politics ultimately is the root of right deviation. It is significant that in 1995 the Maoist Communist Centre pulled out of the All India Peoples Resistance Forum.They claimed that the forum should have given the election boycott slogan, not understanding that it was a wrong to use such type of mass front for that use.The A.I.P.R.F could give solidarity to election boycott campaigns but it was not in their scope to actively propogate boycott of election.Thisshowed M.C.C’s defective understanding on the question of mass organization. In Bihar it did not advocate forming a separate revolutionary peasant organization and only called form forming revolutionary peasant committees.(Unlike the Party Unity which formed the M.K S.S) the Party Unity Group.The manner in which Comrade Mao within a single party fought against Wang Mings’ left deviation as well as the 14 Russian Bolsheviks proposing armed urban insurrection is of great significance.The methods used by the Peruvian Communist Part before they initiated armed struggles as well as the Communist Party of Phillipines would be also a reference point in mass line.This organization also has a big brother approach to other revolutionary organizations.They fail to understand that the development of the unified proletarian party is only in it’s re-building stage and all the groups are only components of the final unified party like many part’s of a machine.6 years ago(by the Erstwhile Peoples War Group) they condemned a revolutionary group the C.P.I.M.L New Democracy Group as a revisionist outfit and unjustly slandered the group ..In Mumbai a similar attitude was displayed in joint front protests against state repression on members of their organization.They have also wrongly replaced the term Maoism with Mao Tse Tung Thought.This is wrong understanding of the present era which is actually the era of Leninism.Even after the Chinese revolution it was called the “thought of Mao Tse Tung” and not ‘Maoism. In Punjab and Maharashtra powerful deviationist tendencies have been exhibited. About 12 years ago in Maharashtra on grounds of opposing foreign funding and collaborating with Non Governmental Organisations majority of members o f the Maharashtra Section were expelled. operation.
d.Wrong understanding with regards to, Dalit question and nationality question.
There is also an erroneous understanding with regards to he Dalit or scheduled caste movements. The Organization has not applied a correct class analytical study and often replaced class struggle with Caste Struggle.Dalit Parties which collaborate with Ruling Class politics have been supported like he Dalit Panther and Republican Party of India. The Dalit Mahasabha has been supported in Andhra Pradesh. Even In Bihar in the agrarian revolutionary movement there has been a strong tendency to support Ruling class Dalit Organisations.Killings have taken place often on caste line instead of implementing class struggle.)It is significant that even in earlier periods the OrganisationsThe organization (that time Peoples War Group) supported the 1989 Chinese Student Movement as well as the movements in East European Countries toppling the Revisionist Regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989 ,not taking into account the petit bourgeois nature of the agitations ,virtually devoid of proletarian content. Similarly they have supported nationality struggles devoid of proletarian content like the J.K.L.F.in Kashmir, the U.L.F.A in Assam Etc.True they have correctly defended the right of nationalities to secede but have not analyzed that the nationality struggles are led by petit-bourgeois ideology . They also have not made sufficient study of the Telengana Armed Struggle.
eDefective approach to other organizations
The C.P.I.Maoist regards itself as the re-organised Communist Party and that after the merger of C.P.I.M.L (Peoples War Group) with the Maoist Communist Centre the Proletarian party was formed. In 1998 when the Party Unity Group merged with the Peoples War Group they claimed that the original 1969 C.P.I.M.L of Charu Mazumdar was re-organised.It regards several revolutionary groups as revisionist .It hardly unites with groups of other trends in significant political issues.It carried out a slander against the C.P.I.M.L New Democracy Group in Andhra Pradesh.
10D Appraisal of the C.P.I. (Maoist)
The first major Unity to praise was the Unity of the C.P.I.M.L Party Unity and the C.P.I.M.L Peoples War in 1998, which had historic value .It as a most principled Unity where after almost 2 decades of consistent exchange between the 2 organizations merged. It is most principled with regards to Internal and International line and has succeed in promoting the Interests of the Ultimate Unified party It greatly helped the Party Unity Group in Bihar who needed the unity to support the development of the base areas.Avenues for a strong All India Perspective have been launched. Significantly it united the movements of the Northern part of India (Bihar and Bengal) with the Southern part (Andhra Pradesh and Dandkaranya) and was thus historic. This trend was a great combat to regionalism in the revolutionary Movement, particularly as Northern India and Southern India have such diverse culture. After the group clashes in Bihar between the Peoples War Group and the Maoist Communist Centre it is a great achievement that they could merge into the C.P.I.(Maoist) and resolve differences and their merger is of historic significance as they existed as different organizations for over 30 years despite so much similarity. They made self-criticism which is praiseworthy in the Marxist Leninist Sense. This is a remarkable thing as Earlier the erstwhile C.P.I.M.L (Peoples War) and Erstwhile C.P.I. (M.L) Party Unity (Before and after they united in 1998) insisted that the 1969 Charu Mazumdar C P.I.M.L. was the re-organised party and not just a revolutionary organization. Now both the Charu Mazumdar C.P.I. (M.L) and the Maoist Communist Centre are recognized as the 2 original revolutionary parties. In Dandkaranya, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh the C.P.I.Maoist carried out historic armed retaliatory actions to defend their movements comparable with those of the Chinese Red Army or even to the Nepalese Red Army in recent years. After the assassination of 3 major Central Committee Members in 1999 their armed squads stood up heroically.Every year they carry out huge rallies in their struggle areas commemorating the Naxalbari movement and upholding martyrs inspite of intensified repression. They are the first revolutionary Organisation in India since Naxalbari to have formed a Peoples Guerilla Army. Their mass organizations cadres have made heroic sacrifices in fronts like the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the Mazdoor Kisan Sang ram Parishad in Bihar and the Radical Students Union and the Rytu Coolie Sang ham in Andhra Pradesh .The efforts of the organisation to give solidarity to the revolutionary struggles in Peru, Nepal and Phillipines is noteworthy. They have also made great efforts to defend Marxism –Leninism Mao Tse Tung Thought and done creditable propaganda upholding Mao Tse Tung Thought through seminars, rallies and conferences. Recently they organised 2 seminars in West Bengal. On the All India Front the historic achievement was the founding of the All India Peoples Resistance Forum in 1992(Now the Revolutionary Democratic Front) by the Peoples War Group, Maoist Communist Centre and Party Unity Group. It United the Revolutionary Forces country wide Fro Punjab to Karnataka. In 1992 a spectacular rally was staged involving 10 lakh people who came mainly from the states of Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. Thousands participated from West Bengal and Maharashtra.In 1994 officially the Forum was formed in Calcutta. This played a major role in uniting the revolutionary peasant movements of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Dandkarnaya. In 1996 the A.I.P.R.F held their first All India Conference. They passed anti Imperialist Resolutions, opposed repression on Democratic Rights, and upheld Nationality Struggles.In August 1997 the Organisation held a seminar on the true Face of 50 years of Indian Independence in Mumbai in Matunga.It was of historic significance that after 50 years the rulers followed the same colonial policies of the British Rulers. The conference was a major achievement .I t dealt with all aspects from Democratic Rights to anti Imperialist, to revolutionary Peasant Struggles, Working Class Struggles and Nationality Struggles. Speakers from all Democratic Walks of life participated .Of great significance were the talks of the revolutionary peasant Struggles. Wrong trends were exhibited like participation of Non Governmental Organisations, wrongly upholding nationality movements, but such an all India gathering with a revolutionary perspective was historic, in front of my eyes. It was a tribute to the Peoples war and Party Unity Groups. One complementary aspect of the A.I.P.R.F was that it took several people into it’s struggle who were not direct participants in the revolutionary movements of Dandkaranya, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar but were participants in democratic struggles against imperialism.Eg The opposing of the Narmada Project in Gujarat, Farmers protest against Globalisation in Karnataka and Punjab Etc.The formation of the Forum is major step in All India Perspective to the revolutionary Movement. Two years ago The All India Peoples Resistance forum merged with the Struggle for Resistance Forum to merge into the Revolutionary Democratic Front. Further mass protests have been led against repression,globalisation If they could extricate themselves from their wrong trends it may not be a long time before the India New Democratic Revolution would emerge. It is of historic significance that the movement led by the constituent organizations of the C.P.I.Maoist could survive and lead a mass movement for such a considerable period from the onslaught of the State.The manner in which they have combated the stae repression in different junctures through organizing people’s court or famine raids was remarkableas well as their protests in term of armed actions or mass protests. .The C.P.I. (Maoist) is a legacy of that and continues to keep the Red Spark alight.Their experience will be written in the annals of International Communist History.